Today, we’ll talk about essential wheat fertilization. Alongside thermic stress, hydro stress and photon stress, there is a nutrition stress. Many times, due to pedo-climatic conditions some farmers drop the essential fertilization opting for fertilizing in spring time when they do an unilateral fertilization with nitrogen fertilizers. There are some technicalities when it comes to fertilizing the wheat with N-P-K, these three macro elements being of utmost importance in wheat nutrition and obtaining a high yield.
It is the most important element for wheat nutrition because it is part of all essential and non-essential amino acids. In wheat we have almost all the essential and nonessential amino acid series. The wheat needs nitrogen in all its vegetation stages, from seed to maturity. When they receive all the nitrogen needed the plans grow at a fast pace, they develop a dark green color and a healthy look. The growth of all plant organs, especially the stems and leafs is stimulated. Insufficient nitrogen slows down the growth by disrupting the cell division and reducing twinning. Synthesis of amino acids and proteins decreases. A small amount of nitrogen leads to a yellowish field in the spring as chlorophyll pigments are replaced with starch grains. If the nitrogen level remains low throughout the vegetation, the plants remain small, yellowed, and the grain yield will be low. Nitrogen supply in the early stages of vegetation is decisive for quantity and a good supply of nitrogen in the blossoming and blooming phases, especially in terms of quality. Application of nitrogen leads to increased protein content.
It plays an important role in all the vital processes of plants, participates in almost all cell synthesis reactions. Phosphorus performs important functions in photosynthesis and breathing processes. Phosphorus takes an active part in the cell division process, speeds up plant growth and leads to an early wheat maturation, often managing to prevent the adverse effects of the arsh from the end of June.
It prevents the fall of plants, increases the resistance to diseases and, to a great extent, resistance to wintering. Increasing wintering resistance is explained by the moderation of the adverse effect of nitrogen (especially when it is in excess) and the accumulation of protective substances in the cells.
Enables the photosynthesis process, intensifies the translocation of amine acids from leaves to grains, enabling their conversion to proteins. Like phosphorus, potassium increases the resistance to falling, to diseases and wintering resistance. It plays an important role in retaining the water inside the plant, largely preventing water stress. Potassium deficiency prevents stalk growth, weakens its resistance, and predisposes wheat to fall.
The tip and edges of the leaves turn yellow or brown and eventually dry. Potassium deficiency causes a number of internal disorders such as: reduction of photosynthesis, disruption of metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins and reduction of protein content. Fertilizing wheat is one of the most important technological links that can make wheat a profitable crop, or it can lead to poor and economically unprofitable productions. Ensuring optimal nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are vital to achieving profitable wheat yields. Optimal doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are determined according to soil type, soil supply, pre-culture, and desired yield.
Unilateral nitrogen fertilization or excessive fertilization can lead to adverse effects on wheat crops such as exposure to fall, exposure to disease attack (rust and flour), weakening of drought resistance and decreased wintering resistance. Optimal fertilization with 140-160 kg / ha of nitrogen, 70-80 kg / ha of phosphorus and 50-60 KG / ha of potassium can lead to superior and high yields if the other technological links are followed and the pedo conditions are optimal.