RDF - Open Field
28 November 2017

Elements necessary for the development of rapeseed and wheat

SULFUR FOR RAPE CULTURE

In addition to the three basic elements we spoke about, namely N-P-K for producing large crops for rapeseed, an essential element is sulfur. Rapeseed is a high sulfur-consuming product, so for obtaining high yields it is necessary to provide the necessary quantities of sulfur, both in quantity and at the optimum time.

The sulfur deficiency determines a low number of silicas on the plant and silky seeds in rape crops. Also, the deficiency of sulfur leads to a decrease in the number of branches per plant, which implicitly leads to a decrease in production. Closely related to the production per unit area, the weight of the seeds on the plant, is also influenced by the sulfur fertilization of autumn rape. It has been found and proven that sulfur increases the availability of phosphorus in the soil and intensifies the decomposition of organic soil material. In recent years, there has been a tendency to fertilize the sulfur-free nitrogen and phosphorus crop, the drastic reduction in the use of organic fertilizers, which has led to a decrease in sulfur in the soil.

Sulfur deficiency is observed early in spring time, by the appearance of some chlorophyll stains on the leaves, pale yellow flowers, light green, often greenish, slightly compressed and flattened silicles. The lack of sulfur leads to an embarrassment of the formation of chlorophyll pigments until it stops, which causes an etiolation of plants that begin with growth peaks, with the youngest leaves and advance down to the leaves of the lower floors, the plants have a fierce appearance. Rape needs to produce a ton of seed and its associated secondary production of 16 kg of sulfur. Production losses can reach up to 1-2 tons / ha in case of sulfur deficiency. The rape needs sulfur throughout the growing season, but the maximum sulfur consumption is from the flow of the flowering stem throughout the flowering, the formation of silicones and silicas.

In view of these issues, the question arises when to apply sulfur to rapeseed? The practical way of applying the sulfur is determined by each farmer, depending on the state of the crop, the technical endowment it has and the resources at its disposal. Sulfur can be applied both to the soil in the form of solid chemical fertilizers and in the form of foliar fertilizers.

It is advisable to apply autumn sulfur at leaf stage (4-6 leaves) and spring during strain stretching. You can take the green button phase, the phase until the sulfur has to be applied.

BORON FOR RAPE CULTURE

It is considered one of the most important microelements affecting plant nutrition, with an important role in metabolism. Boron is involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids in the formation of proteins and peptic substances. It is the microelement that indirectly influences the absorption of nutrients by promoting the development of the root system, thereby increasing the nutrient consumption of the plant. Boron deficiency affects the metabolism of nitrogen in plants

Borage plays a very important role in the formation of reproductive organs and the germination of pollen, which leads to a favorable action of this microelement and to the flowering, fructification and seed formation. The deficiency in this micro element is manifested by stopping the growth of plants and by chlorothic leaves.

In autumn rapeseed, the defilement of boron is manifested from blooming and from the younger leaves to the leaves of the lower floors. Poor fertilization sometimes to complete pollen sterility and the formation of seedless silicones are often the consequences of boron deficiency. Boron is applied autumn with the application of other treatments such as herbicide or application of fungicides and insecticides. Depending on the boron deficiency, treatments can be applied and in the spring the number of applications may reach 3 or even 4 splashes.

Manganese has an important role in plant nutrition and, together with other chemical elements (Fe, Cu, Zn), directly activates the chlorophyll formation process. In the absence of manganese, carbon dioxide assimilation is reduced, cell turgidity decreases and consequently the resistance to frost and, in addition, the breath of the whole plant is affected. Low temperatures diminish the absorption of manganese, phenomena that occur frequently in the spring and early summer, when temperature falls. Symptoms of manganese deficiency are manifested by chlorothic stains on new leaves emerging in the spring, the whole plant has a pale appearance. The absence of manganese occurs on the leaves of the middle and upper floors and the youngest of the stem and shoots. Manganese deficiency is corrected by foliar treatments of 1-5 kg ​​manganese / ha being sufficient.

MAGNEZIUM FOR RAPE CULTURE 

This element participates in the structure of chlorophyll, participates in the regulation of cell permeability and as a stimulator in the enzymatic systems of the vegetal organism. Magnesium is present in large quantities in growing young tissues in the reproductive organs, where phosphorus is also present, indicating an important role in phosphorus nutrition and transport. Magnesium also plays a role in the metabolism of nitrogen. Magnesium deficiency is manifested by green color blushing, yellowing of the intraerval parenchyma, the nerves remaining green for some time, then the portions affected by parenchin necrose and dry. The purity is treated by applying foliar fertilizers with solutions of 4-5% magnesium sulphate.

Elements required for wheat

Application of sulfur to wheat has a positive influence on both quantity and quality. Applied to wheat, sulfur directly favors protein synthesis. When properly fertilized with nitrogen, it helps to balance protein and gluten. Sulfur has a direct influence on gluten proteins. Application of nitrogen and sulfur in optimal and optimum quantities leads to high and stable production and especially to high quality production. Sulfur can be applied to the wheat from the appearance of the second node until it is sprinkled.

During foliar vegetation foliar fertilizers can also be used, which also contain micro elements such as Mg, Bo, Zn. The fertilization of wheat and rape and other agricultural crops is an important link for obtaining high quality and high yields. Applying the 3 N-P-K base elements and microelements at optimal dosages and at optimum times to provide the plant with the nutrients needed at maximum consumption will result in maximum economic efficiency.